Graduate Institute ofFerrous Technology



[CSL] Prof. Youn-Bae Kang: ISIJ International, Vol. 58(2018), No. 7, pp.1257-1266
GIFT 18-08-31 11:03


In order to elucidate possible mechanism causing nozzle clogging during continuous casting of Ti added Ultra Low C (Ti-ULC) steel, thermodynamic analysis and experimental validation were carried out with an emphasis on the chemical reaction between the liquid steel and nozzle refractory. It was pointed out that the reaction occurs between CO gas from the nozzle refractory and the liquid steel, at the interface between them. A series of thermodynamic calculations were carried out in order to predict related phase equilibria. It was found that Ti in the steel induces the formation of a liquid oxide composed of FetO–Al2O3–TiOx along with solid alumina. This was different to a case of Ti-free ULC where only solid alumina was stable. In order to verify the thermodynamic predictions, a series of experiments were conducted. A number of Fe–Al–Ti alloys were reacted with CO gas at 1 560°C in order to simulate the interfacial reaction. Surface and cross section of the alloy samples were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS). The experimental results were in good agreement with the thermodynamic predictions. This finding provides an idea why nozzle clogging is
deteriorated by addition of Ti in ULC steel. It is proposed that Ti is oxidized together with Fe and Al by CO gas from a nozzle, and forms a liquid oxide composed of FetO–Al2O3–TiOx, which shows good wettability both to liquid steel and to refractory. This would be a precursor of clog material inside the nozzle.

KEY WORDS: Ti added ultra-low carbon steel; nozzle clogging; interfacial reaction; thermodynamics;
FetO–Al2O3–TiOx liquid oxide. 


2018_Ti-ULC Clogging_ISIJ_Lee.pdf 4회 (1.2M) 2018-08-31 11:03:06

19 ea 1 page

2013 Acta Student Award winner, Dr. Jae Hoon Jang

​​​Dr. Jae Hoon Jang, former Ph.D. student in CML, wins the Acta Student Award in this year. This award is given to the person who has made a major contribution to the paper in Acta journal, which demonstrate…

GIFT | 07-31 Time

The NIMS Award 2012 to Prof. Bhadeshia

​Prof. Harry Bhadeshia, the Director of CML was awarded the 2012 NIMS award for distinguished achievements in research and development of structural materials and invaluable contributions to NIMS (National Ins…

GIFT | 06-14 Time

KIM Best Poster in 2011

​The Fall Meeting of Korean Institute of Metals and Materials (KIM) was held on October 27 2011 in Daejeon, Korea.At this meeting, two groups of GIFT were selected to be awarded the Best Poster Award as follows…

GIFT | 11-04 Time

New book written by Prof. De Cooman

​​Title : Fundamentals of Steel Product Physical MetallurgyAuthor : Bruno.C.De Cooman,  John G. Speer Publishing : AIST Prof. Bruno C. De Cooman, Director of MDL and Prof. John G. Speer, Adjunct …

GIFT | 11-01 Time

THERMEC’2011 Distinguished Award

​Prof. Hae-Geon Lee, Director of Clean Steel Lab was awarded the THERMEC’2011 Distinguished Award at the THERME2011 International Conference on Processing & Manufacturing of Advanced Materials held in Quebe…

GIFT | 10-24 Time

2011 ACerS Spriggs Phase Equilibria award

​Prof. Hae-Geon Lee, Director of CSL and Dr. Dae-Hee Woo, graduated from GIFT in 2010 have been awarded the ACerS Spriggs Phase Equilibria Award for the paper "Phase Equilibria of the the MnO-SiO2-Al2O3-MnS Sy…

GIFT | 09-15 Time