In this study, the ideal alloying element (among Cr, V, and Mo carbides) to enhance the resistance to hydrogen embrittlement (HE) in a tempered martensitic steel was investigated. Four types of steels were designed to contain cementites, Cr-rich M7C3 carbides, V carbides, and Mo carbides, respectively. These steels were tailored to possess a comparable tensile strength (~1.6 GPa). The HE resistances of these steels were evaluated through the slow strain rate test and cyclic corrosion test. The results showed an enhanced HE resistance, characterized by a high notch fracture strength after hydrogen charging, in the samples containing V carbides and Mo carbides. In particular, Mo carbide was regarded as the most ideal alloying element for HE resistance because of the high resistivity parameter, inhibited hydrogen penetration, and suppressed strength loss by internal hydrogen.