댓글 0건 조회 66회 작성일 2022-11-02 17:36
Abstract : Fluorine (F) is regarded as a key element in electrolytes for sodium metal anodes (SMAs) because of the formation of NaF containing solid–electrolyte interphase (SEI) layers; however, the high-cost and HF formation issues experienced by F-based electrolytes should be addressed. Herein, F-free, cost-effective 1 M NaBH4/ether-based electrolytes are proposed, motivated by the recent speculation that NaH is a “good SEI layer.” The time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) results of sodium metal electrodes after galvanostatic cycling demonstrated that NaH is a major component of the SEI layer. In addition, the native oxide surface of sodium was converted into NaH and NaBO2 after soaking in the electrolytes, implying that “SEI reconstruction” occurred by chemical reduction. Accordingly, significantly longer cyclability was obtained in the Na‖Na symmetric cell (1200 h, 1 mA cm−2, 1 mA h cm−2) than in F-based electrolytes. In seawater batteries (SWBs), 1 M NaBH4/DEGDME (diethylene glycol dimethyl ether) delivers higher power density (2.82 mW cm−2vs. 2.27 mW cm−2) and cyclability (300 h vs. 50 h) under 1 mA cm−2 than 1 M NaOTf/TEGDME (tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether), which is commonly used in SWBs. In conclusion, two novel contributions of this study include the demonstration that NaH can work as a “good SEI layer” apart from NaF and the proposal of a cost-effective, F-free electrolyte for practical and large-scale SWBs.
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